For months, federal prosecutors have brought witnesses in front of a grand jury in Washington, DC, to investigate efforts by former President Donald Trump and his close allies to reverse the results of the 2020 presidential election.
The witnesses, several of whom appeared under subpoena, range from low-level aides to Trump’s own vice president. There are also several key witnesses who have met with prosecutors for interviews that could help special counsel Jack Smith build his case.
Any indictment that comes from the sprawling probe into the aftermath of the election, efforts to overturn the result or the January 6, 2021, attack at the US Capitol will likely rely, at least in part, on what those individuals testified to under oath behind closed doors.
Here’s who’s appeared before the grand jury:
Mike Pence : Former Vice President Mike Pence testified in April – the first time in modern history that a vice president has been compelled to testify about the president he served beside. Pence testified for over five hours and was likely asked to recount his direct conversations with Trump leading up to January 6, 2021, and Trump’s unsuccessfully attempt to pressure him into blocking the 2020 election’s result. Both Pence and Trump asked for the subpoena to be thrown out, but trial and appellate judges rejected that request.
Mark Meadows: Mark Meadows, Trump’s former chief of staff, appeared before the grand jury in June. He was also ordered by a judge to provide documents to investigators despite claims of executive privilege. As chief of staff, Meadows was in the middle of Trump’s efforts to overturn the election in the two months between Election Day and Joe Biden’s inauguration. Meadows pushed Justice Department officials to investigate debunked claims of voter fraud and communicated with Trump’s allies about plans to challenge Biden’s win.
Marc Short: Marc Short, former chief of staff to Pence, testified to the grand jury about the fake elector scheme and the role of Trump lawyers John Eastman and Rudy Giuliani.
Greg Jacob : Greg Jacob, a former aide to Pence, was also questioned about the scheme to appoint fake electors in battleground states. Short and Jacob, both members of Pence’s inner circle, were present in key meetings in the lead-up to the January 6 riot that were part of a pressure campaign to convince Pence to disrupt Congress’ certification of Biden’s electoral win.
Dan Scavino: Former White House deputy chief of staff Dan Scavino testified to the grand jury twice – before and after a court decision that he cannot withhold answers on presidential secrecy grounds.
See the full list here.